Monitoring atmospheric composition & climate
Smoke affecting Singapore

photo_1371713623527-4-0.jpgThe city-state of Singapore is currently engulfed in a thick haze, strongly affecting the air quality. Singapore's three-hour pollution standards index reached 371, which is higher than ever measured before by Singapore’s National Environment Agency; readings above 300 are considered hazardous. The haze is originating from smoke particles emitted by biomass burning in the surrounding area. In the current meteorological conditions these biomass burning aerosol particles are transported directly over Singapore.

MACC-II routinely detects emissions from forest fires and biomass burning on a daily basis using its GFAS algorithm. The main inputs to this algorithm are Radiative Power observations from the MODIS satellites and the product is available in various formats. The situation for yesterday is shown in the figure below and a clear emission signal is visible over Sumatra. These emission estimates for aerosol, carbon monoxide, and other trace gases are used in the MACC-II global forecasting model to simulate the evolvement of the smoke plume over the next few days. These forecasts are also produced routinely every day and available from the MACC-II web site.


An animation of the current 5-day forecast for biomass burning aerosol is shown in the figure below. A clear aerosol plume is visible affecting Sumatra, Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, and even the Philippines. No significant change in the direction of this plume is foreseen for at least the next few days. The daily MACC-II forecasts will monitor the situation and any change in the wind patterns will immediatley be visible in the forecasts.